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Chicago (17th ed.) Style Guide: Bibliography

An introductory guide to creating notes and bibliography entries in accordance with the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (2017).

Arranging Bibliography Entries


Entries in a bibliography are arranged alphabetically based on the first word(s) of each entry. Usually this means you're alphabetizing by author/editor last name, although entries for anonymous sources do not have author names. Two anonymous sources appear in the "Sample Bibliography" (below at right). See the entries that begin with "Colonial Williamsburg Foundation" and "Osceola (KY) Times."

Multiple entries that begin with the same author/editor last name should be alphabetized based on the remaining word(s) in the author/editor names (see the two entries for Page in the "Sample Bibliography"). For example:

Smith, A. A.
Smith, Abby.
Smith, Abigail.
Smith, John.
Smith, John A.
Smith, John Abraham.
Smith, R. Samuel.
Smith, Rex.
Smith, Rex, Jr.

When you have multiple entries for works by the same author/editor, the author's full name is replaced with a set of three hyphens beginning with the second entry for that author/editor (see the two entries for Thurber in the "Sample Bibliography"). The multiple entries are alphabetized by the word(s) following the author's/editor's name. For example:

Jones, Jane. Acting Like Myself.
---. "America, My America."
---. Freeing the Inner Me.
---. Methodists and Martians.


Key to Bibliography Entries


Asante citing a foreword to a single-authored book; foreword and book by different authors; lesser-known American city of publication
Barrett citing an entire edited book; 3 editors; lesser-known American city of publication
Beebe citing a single-authored magazine article from a library database
Bristol-Rhys citing a single-authored article in the 2nd volume of an edited multivolume set; 1 editor
Brown citing a single-authored book review in a journal from a library database
Colonial citing a streaming video from the Web
De Vinne citing a personal communication received by yourself via e-mail
Filippi citing an entire authored and translated book; 1 author; 1 translator
Gascoyne citing an entire edited book in a new edition; 4 editors; 2nd edition; lesser-known American city of publication
Greenwald citing a dissertation
Harding citing a single-authored blog posting from a website
Hatzenbuehler citing a dual-authored journal article from a library database; DOI-based URL
Jackson citing a single-authored article from a website
Jarvis citing a streaming video from a library database
Johnson citing an entire compiled multivolume set in a revised edition; 1 compiler; lesser-known American city of publication
Lamb citing a single-authored magazine article from a Web-based database
Lumbers citing a single-authored journal article from a library database
Marimow citing a single-authored newspaper article from a paper copy; city not named in newspaper title
Matthews citing an entire anonymously authored translated book; 1 translator; lesser-known American city of publication
Montefiore citing a single-authored magazine article from a paper copy
Morgan-Bentley citing a tri-authored newspaper article from a library database; city not named in newspaper title
Neuborne citing a single-authored newspaper editorial from a paper copy
Nogawa citing a dual-authored journal article from a library database
Osceola citing an anonymously authored newspaper article from a Web-based database; lesser-known city in newspaper title
Page, Hugh citing a single-authored article in the 5th volume of an edited multivolume set; 1 editor; each volume has its own individual title
Page, Sohpie citing a chapter in a single-authored e-book from a library database; lesser-known American city of publication; DOI-based URL
Roesdahl citing an entire authored and translated book in a new edition; 1 author; 2 translators; 2nd edition
Ross citing a single-authored newspaper article from a library database; city not named in newspaper title; lesser-known city
Rossetti citing a single-authored poem in an edited book in a new edition; 1 editor; 6th edition
Thurber (1) citing a chapter in a single-authored book; lesser-known American city of publication
Thurber (2) 2nd entry by the same author; citing an entire single-authored book
Ung citing a preface to a single-authored book; preface and book by same author
Van de Water citing an entire authored and translated book; 2 authors; 2 translators; lesser-known foreign city of publication
Welles citing an entire authored multivolume set; 1 author


Formatting a Bibliography




As with the text of your paper, a bibliography should be double spaced.

Entries in a bibliography are formatted differently than entries in notes. See the other pages of this guide for help with understanding the differences. You can also: 1) consult a copy of the The Chicago Manual of Style; 2) ask a librarian for help; or 3) make an appointment with the Writing Center.

Entries in a bibliography should be arranged alphabetically by the initial component of the entry, which is commonly an author's last name.

Entries in a bibliography should use a hanging indent. In other words, for entries that are longer than one line, all lines beyond the first need to be indented, as shown here:




Sample Bibliography




In an actual paper the entries below would use hanging indents (see explanation above).




Asante, Molefi Kete. Foreword to Transcendence and the Africana Literary Enterprise, by Christel N. Temple, vii-ix. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2020.

Barrett, Anthony A., Elaine Fantham, and John C. Yardley, eds. The Emperor Nero: A Guide to the Ancient Sources. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2016.

Beebe, Beatrice B. "Arrest Yourself, Sir: An Incident of High Diplomatic Nature in Our Alaskan History." Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, June 1931.

Bristol-Rhys, Jane E. "United Arab Emirates." In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women, edited by Natana J. Delong-Bas, 382-84. Vol. 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Brown, Thomas A. Review of Civil War Settlers: Scandinavians, Citizenship, and American Empire, 1848–1870, by Anders Bo Rasmussen. Scandinavian Studies 95, no. 1 (Spring 2023): 108-11.

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, prod. "The Geddy Foundry." June 30, 2023. Video, 4:20.

De Vinne, Christine. Email message to author. August 21, 2023.

Filippi, Francesco. Mussolini Also Did a Lot of Good: The Spread of Historical Amnesia. Translated by John Irving. Montreal: Baraka Books, 2021.

Gascoyne, Kevin, François Marchand, Jasmin Desharnais, and Hugo Américi, eds. Tea: History, Terroirs, Varieties. 2nd ed. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2014.

Greenwald, Marilyn S. "The Life and Career of Journalist Charlotte Curtis: A Rhetorical Biography." PhD diss., Ohio State University, 1991.

Harding, Stephen. "Rescue Mission." Stories (blog). National Air and Space Museum, September 20, 2023.

Hatzenbuehler, Ronald L., and Robert L. Ivie. "Justifying the War of 1812: Toward a Model of Congressional Behavior in Early War Crises." Social Science History 4, no. 4 (November 1980): 453-77.

Jackson, Kevin. "A Short History of Pyramidology." BBC. Last updated February 17, 2011.

Jarvis, Tom, and Cherique Pohl, dirs. Search for the Last Unicorn. Produced by BBC Worldwide Learning. Films on Demand, accessed November 30, 2022. Video, 49:10.

Johnson, Donald Bruce, comp. National Party Platforms. Rev. ed. 2 vols. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1978.

Lamb, Harold. "The Western March of the Mongols." Military Review, January 1950.

Lumbers, Michael. "The Irony of Vietnam: The Johnson Administration's Tentative Bridge Building to China, 1965-1966." Journal of Cold War Studies 6, no. 3 (Summer 2004): 68-114.

Marimow, Ann E. "In Unanimous Decision, Court Hands Major Victory to Religious Groups." Plain Dealer (Cleveland), June 30, 2023.

Matthews, Boris, trans. The Herder Dictionary of Symbols: Symbols from Art, Archaeology, Mythology, Literature, and Religion. Wilmette, IL: Chiron, 1993.

Montefiore, Simon Sebag. "What Prigozhin's End Says About Russia." Time, September 25, 2023.

Morgan-Bentley, Paul, Charlotte Wace, and Rosamund Urwin. "Woman Goes to Met Police After Brand Investigation; Officers Told of Alleged Sexual Assault in 2003." Times (London), September 19, 2023.

Neuborne, Burt. "There's a Good Chance Trump Will Be Found 'Willfully Blind.'" Editorial. New York Times, August 31, 2023.

Nogawa, Haruo, and Sandra J. Suttie. "A Japanese-American Basketball League and the Assimilation of Its Members into the Mainstream of United States Society." International Review for the Sociology of Sport 19, no. 3-4 (1984): 259-71.

Osceola (KY) Times. "Kentucky Kicks Dog Racers Out." December 23, 1927.

Page, Hugh R., Jr. "Cham." In East and Southeast Asia, edited by Paul Hockings, 72-74. Vol. 5 of Encyclopedia of World Cultures. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1994.

Page, Sophie. "Natural Magic: The Basilisk and the Lodestone." In Magic in the Cloister: Pious Motives, Illicit Interests, and Occult Approaches to the Medieval Universe, 31-48. University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2021.

Roesdahl, Else. The Vikings. 2nd ed. Translated by Susan M. Margeson and Kirsten Williams. London: Penguin Books, 1998.

Ross, Gretchen. "Hamilton Barn Houses Community History." State Journal (Charleston, WV), July 11, 2015.

Rossetti, Christina. "After Death." In The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 6th ed., edited by M. H. Abrams, 2105-6. New York: W. W. Norton, 1996.

Thurber, James. "Magical Lady." In Lanterns and Lances, 31-34. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1962.

---. Thurber's Dogs: A Collection of the Master's Dogs, Written and Drawn, Real and Imaginary, Living and Long Ago. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1955.

Ung, Loung. Preface to Lucky Child: A Daughter of Cambodia Reunites with the Sister She Left Behind, xi-xiv. New York: HarperCollins, 2005.

Van de Water, Antoinette, and Liesbeth Sluiter. The Great Elephant Escape. Translated by Joy Carolus and Janette Symons. Chiang Mai, Thai.: Silkworm Books, 2009.

Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon Welles. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1911.