BASIC COMPONENTS (Journal Article with 7 or More Authors)
If DOI is not available, add the following:
ARRANGING AND FORMATTING COMPONENTS
Last name first, followed by first initial and (if given) additional initials. No blank space between initials.
de la Peña SK
List only the first three authors. Separate names with a comma. Do not add the word "and" before the final author name. Add a comma and the phrase "et al" after the third author, followed by a period.
Mohammed WS, Al-Makramani BMA, Mehta V, et al.
Williams J, Gustafson M, Bai Y, et al.
Villegas-Aguilar E, Ropero-Padilla C, Martin-Ibañez L, et al.
TITLE OF ARTICLE
Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title. All other words remain fully uncapitalized except for: 1) the first letter of proper nouns; 2) acronyms; 3) other miscellaneous circumstances. Do not enclose the full article title in quotation marks. Do not capitalize the first letter of the first word of a subtitle (unless it constitutes an exception).
Miracle cure kills fifth patient.
The effect of having Christmas dinner with in-laws on gut microbiota composition.
Factitious diarrhea: a case of watery deception.
PGAMgnam style: a glycolytic switch controls biosynthesis.
Can you tell your clunis from your cubitus? a benchmark for functional imaging.
ABBREVIATED TITLE OF JOURNAL
Abbreviate and italicize the title of the journal. The journal title abbreviation may be provided by the article itself or the database record. If not, you can do the following:
Am J Surg.
Med Lett Drugs Ther.
Some short journal titles are not abbreviated.
YEAR OF PUBLICATION / VOLUME AND ISSUE NUMBER / PAGE NUMBER(S)
The year of publication, volume/issue number, and page number(s) form an unbroken character string. Do not include blank spaces. Place a semicolon after the year and a colon after the volume/issue number.
However, if the journal article has discontinuous pagination (i.e., skips one or more pages), a blank space(s) will be included within the pagination portion of the character string.
1972;14(4):506-516, 518, 521-522.
DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string assigned to a document published online. Include the DOI at the end of the reference, prefaced with the lowercase acronym (doi) and a colon. Do not include a blank space after the colon. Do not add a period after the DOI.
DATE OF ACCESS / URL (if DOI not available)
If a DOI is not available, include the word "Accessed" followed by the date of access (month day [comma] year) and a period. Do not abbreviate the month. Then add a stable URL for the article. Do not include a period after the URL.
Accessed September 14, 2016. https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/family-stress-perceived-social-support-coping-who/docview/304131056/se-2
Accessed June 5, 2021. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mnh&AN=10646305&login.asp&site=ehost-live
SAMPLE REFERENCES (Journal Article with 7 or More Authors)
Mannucci C, Attard E, Calapai F, et al. Coffee intake during pregnancy and neonatal low birth weight: data from a multicenter Italian cross sectional study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2022;35(22):4365-4369. doi:10.1080/14767058.2020.1849120
Kornthong N, Cummins SF, Chotwiwatthanakun C, et al. Identification of genes associated with reproduction in the mud crab (Scylla olivacea) and their differential expression following serotonin stimulation. PLoS One. 2014;9(12):e115867. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115867
Oura T, Tanaka H, Morimoto Y, et al. Sufficient PpIX production for PDT even with short contact time of topically applied 5-ALA in rabbit tongues. Lasers Med Sci. 2008;23(4):355-360. doi:10.1007/s10103-007-0493-3
Kawashima S, Takahashi Y, Niikuni N, et al. Development of X-ray TV M-mode and reconstructed ultrasound M-mode methods for investigating tongue movement during swallowing in humans. J Oral Sci. 1999;41(1):1-4. doi:10.2334/josnusd.41.1
Nims RM, Ferguson JA, Walker JL, et al. Epizootiology of tropical canine pancytopenia in Southeast Asia. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1971;158(1):53-63. Accessed December 13, 2022. https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mnh&AN=5101839&login.asp&site=ehost-live