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AMA (11th ed.) Style Guide: Book (7 or more authors)

An introductory guide to creating end-of-paper references in accordance with the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style (2020).


BASIC COMPONENTS (Book with 7 or More Authors)

  • FIRST AUTHOR NAME [comma] SECOND AUTHOR NAME [comma] THIRD AUTHOR NAME [comma] et al [period]
  • TITLE OF BOOK [period]
  • EDITION (if any) [period]
  • PUBLISHER NAME [semicolon]
  • YEAR OF COPYRIGHT [period]

For e-books, add the following:

  • DATE OF ACCESS [period]
  • URL




Last name first, followed by first initial and (if given) additional initials. No blank space between initials.


Cooper T
Berben SAA
Gausche-Hill M
de la Peña SK

List only the first three authors. Separate names with a comma. Do not add the word "and" before the final author name. Add a comma and the phrase "et al" after the third author, followed by a period.


Mohammed WS, Al-Makramani BMA, Mehta V, et al.

Williams J, Gustafson M, Bai Y, et al.

Villegas-Aguilar E, Ropero-Padilla C, Martin-Ibañez L, et al.



Italicize the full title. Capitalize the first letter of major words. Articles, conjunctions, prepositions (3 or fewer letters), and the "to" in infinitives should all remain in lowercase. End with a period.


Everything I Know About Women I Learned From My Tractor.

How to Preserve Animal and Other Specimens in Clear Plastic.

Why Cats Paint: A Theory of Feline Aesthetics.

Electricity in Gynaecology: The Practical Uses of Electricity in Diseases of Women.

Knitting With Dog Hair: Better a Sweater From a Dog You Know and Love Than From a Sheep You'll Never Meet.


EDITION (if any)

Include edition information when given. Present numbers as ordinals--2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. Do not superscript the letters (2nd = wrong; 2nd = right). Add the abbreviation "ed" followed by a period.


7th ed.

21st ed.

Rev ed.

5th rev ed.

Updated ed.



Include the publisher's name as given on the title page, modifying it as follows:

  • Abbreviate corporate words (Company, Corporation, etc.). Do not add a period.
  • Remove the period from existing corporate abbreviations such as Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd.
  • Remove periods from initials.
  • Remove commas.
  • Remove the word "the" if it's the first word in the name.
  • Replace the word "and" with an ampersand (&).

Add a semicolon following the publisher's name.


Springer Pub. Co.    Springer Pub Co;

W.W. Norton & Company     WW Norton & Co;

Holt, Rinehart and Winston     Holt Rinehart & Winston;

Neil M. Davis Associates    Neil M Davis Associates;

The University of Chicago Press    University of Chicago Press;



Include the year of copyright/publication, followed by a period.






DATE OF ACCESS / URL (e-books only)

Include the word "Accessed" followed by the date of access (month day [comma] year) and a period. Do not abbreviate the month. Then add a stable URL for the book. Do not include a period after the URL.


Accessed September 14, 2016.

Accessed June 5, 2021.

Accessed February 29, 2020.


SAMPLE REFERENCES (Book with 7 or More Authors)

Cullen DR, Fenter K, Garrett B, et al. Window to the World. 2nd ed. 9A Press; 2020.

Engelen E, Ertürk I, Froud J, et al. After the Great Complacence: Financial Crisis and the Politics of Reform. Oxford University Press; 2011. Accessed February 10, 2012.

Kunz CL, Schmedemann DA, Erlinder CP, et al. The Process of Legal Research. Little Brown & Co; 1986.

Olle TW, Hagelstein J, MacDonald IG, et al. Information Systems Methodologies: A Framework for Understanding. 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley; 1991.